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Research

BRT prides ourselves on our on-going commitment to research in the fields of impact biomechanics and accident reconstruction. Below is a list of our publications.

2019

Furbish, C., Welcher, J., Brink, J., Jones, B. et al., "Occupant Kinematics and Loading in Low Speed Lateral Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1027, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1027.

Carpenter, N. and Welcher, J., "Inter-Vehicular Sliding Friction and Crush Energy Losses in Impulse Momentum Planar Collision," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0422, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0422.

2018

Grimes C, Roescher T, Suway J, Welcher J, “Comparing the Accuracy of Image Based Scanning Techniques to Laser Scanners,” Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress and Exhibition, 2018, SAE Paper No. 2018-01-0525

2016

Suway, J. and Welcher, J., "A Quantitative Method for Accurately Depicting Still Photographs or Video of a Night-Time Scene Utilizing Equivalent Contrast," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1463, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1463.

2015

 

Vandiver, W., Anderson, R., Ikram, I., Randles, B., and Furbish, C., "Analysis of Crash Data from a 2012 Kia Soul Event Data Recorder," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1445, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1445.

 

Suway, J. and Welcher, J., "Retroreflective DOT-C2 Tape Performance in Relation to Observation and Entrance Angle - A Real World Study," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1432, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1432.

 

Suway, J. and Welcher, J., "Quantifying Retroreflective DOT-C2 Tape Performance using a Retroreflectometer," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1429, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1429.

2014

 

Anderson, R. and Furbish, C., “Forces in Vehicle Side-view Mirror Collisions,” Proceedings of the 66th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 20, 2014.

Randles, B., Voss, D., Ikram, I., Furbish, C., Welcher, J., and Szabo, T., "Acceleration Testing and Modeling of Vehicle Kinematics Under Idle Conditions," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 2(2):240-256, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0484.

2013

 

Popovich, J.M., Jr., Welcher, J.B., Hedman, T.P., Tawackoli, W., Anand, N., Chen, T.C., and Kulig, K. (2013). Lumbar facet joint and intervertebral disc loading during simulated frontal plane pelvic obliquity.  The Spine Journal. [published online ahead of print May 21, 2013].

 

Vandiver, W., Ikram, I., and Randles, B., “Validation and Use of EDR Data from a Non-CDR Supported Vehicle in a Criminal Prosecution,” Collision Magazine, Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2013.

 

Vandiver, W., Ikram, I., and Randles, B., "Accuracy of Pre-Crash Speed Recorded in 2009 Mitsubishi Lancer Event Data Recorders," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1263, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1263.

2011

Furbish, C., Ivory, M., Hoffman, M., Anderson, R., et al., "Steering Column Loads and Upper Extremity Motions During Low Speed Rear-End Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0275, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0275.

2010

 

Welcher, J., Popovich J., Hedman, T., and Tawackoli W., “A New Sensor Array for Measuring Intra-Articular Pressure:  Evaluation and Validation,” Published and presented at 2010 Summary Bioengineering Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Naples, FL.  

 

Furbish CJ, Ward P, and Der Avanessian H, “Increased Risk of Submarining and Lower Extremity Injuries Associated with Obesity in Frontal Impacts,” Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 16, 2010.

 

Ivory, M., Furbish, C., Hoffman, M., Miller, E., et al., "Brake Pedal Response and Occupant Kinematics During Low Speed Rear-End Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0067, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0067.

 

Randles, B., Jones, B., Welcher, J., Szabo, T., Elliott, D. and MacAdams, C., "The Accuracy of Photogrammetry vs. Hands-on Measurement Techniques used in Accident Reconstruction," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0065, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0065.

2009

 

Popovich J., Welcher J., Cholewicki, J., Tawackoli W., and Kulig K., “The Effect of Follower Load on Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Forces and Intervertebral Disc Pressures,”  Published and presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 2009.

 

Furbish CJ, Ward P, and Der Avanessian H, “Determining Vehicle Speed in a Fatal Pedestrian Impact: A Case of Tampered Evidence,” Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 15, 2009.

2008

 

Welcher, J., Popovich J., Hedman, T., and Tawackoli W., “Development and Validation of a Versatile Intra-Articular Pressure Sensing Array,”  Published and presented at the Fourth North American Congress of Biomechanics (Joint meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics and Canadian Society of Biomechanics), Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2008.

 

Furbish CJ, Ward C, and Der Avanessian H, “Identifying Fault in a Fatal Pedestrian Impact,” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 14, 2008.

 

Singh J., Perry, J., and Welcher, J., “Single Point Crush Variation,” Collision Magazine.  Volume 3, Issue 1, 90-93, Spring 2008.

 

2007

 

Popovich, J.M., Jr., Welcher, J.W., Kulig, K., Pelled, G., Gazit, D., and Tawackoli, W.  (2007).  The effect of loading rate on porcine lumbar spinal segments:  An in-vitro biomechanical study.  American Society of Biomechanics 2007 Annual Conference, Palo Alto, CA, August 22-25, 2007.  (Abstract)

 

Furbish CJ, Ward C, and Hoffman MR, “Airbag Injury Risk to Older Children Occupying the Front Passenger Seat,” Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume 13, 2007.

 

Welcher, J., Popovich, J., and Hedman, T. “Development of a Novel Intra-Articular Pressure Sensing Array,”  Published and presented at the 11th Annual Grodins Graduate Research Symposium, University of Southern California, Biomedical Engineering Department, April 11, 2007.

 

2005

 

Welcher, J., “Pedestrian Impact Biomechanics” invited presentation and publication at ARC-CSI Crash Conference 2005.

 

Long, T., Fugger, T. and Randles, B., “Vehicle performance characteristics and seat belt effectiveness in low speed vehicles and golf cars,” Enhanced Safety of Vehicles 05-0431, 2005.

 

Hernández, I., Fyfe, K., Heo, G., Ikram, I., and Major, P., “Kinematics of Head Movement and Onset of Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Activity in Simulated Low-Velocity Rear-end Impacts”, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, Volume 99, Issue 4, Pages 438-439, April 2005.

2004

Ikram, I., “Development of an Accelerometer Based Motion Analysis System for Measurement of Head and Jaw Kinematics During Rear-Impact”, University of Alberta, Master’s thesis (2004).

 

Patel V., Welcher J., Bae H., Delamarter R., Pradhan B., and Hedman T., “Floating and Fixed Center of Rotation Intervertebral Prostheses: Biomechanical Comparison,” Proceedings of the Spine Arthroplasty Society Summit 4, Vienna Austria, May 2004.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., and Eubanks, J., "The Efficacy of Event Data Recorders in Pedestrian-Related Accidents," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1195, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1195.

2003

 

Szabo, T., Voss, D., and Welcher, J., “Influence of Seat Foam and Geometrical Properties on BioRID P3 Kinematic Response to Rear Impacts,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 4, Issue 4, pp 315-323, December, 2003.

 

Singh, J., Welcher, J. and Perry, J., “N-point Linear Interpolation of Motor Vehicle Crush Profiles Applied to Various Force-Shortening Models,” International Journal of Crash Worthiness, 2003; 8: 321-328.

 

Welcher, J., “Collision Trauma Biomechanics” invited presentation and publication at ARC-CSI Crash Conference 2003.

 

Welcher, J., “Occupant Kinematics (Biomechanics)” invited presentation and publication at Special Problems in Traffic Crash Reconstruction, Institute of Police Technology and Management (IPTM), presented at Breakout Sessions, 2003.

 

Singh, J., Welcher, J., and Perry, J., "Effects of Mass and Stiffness Ratio Variation on Vehicle Speed Change and Closing Speed Calculations," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0890, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0890.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Welcher, J., and Szabo, T., "Vehicle and Occupant Kinematics in Low-Speed Override/Underride Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0158, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-0158.

2002

 

Szabo, T., Voss, D. and Welcher, J., “Influence of Seat Foam and Geometrical Properties on BioRID P3 Kinematic Response to Rear Impacts,” Proceedings of 2002 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, pp 87-101, Munich, Germany, September 18-20, 2002.

 

Wobrock, J., Fugger, T., Randles, B. and Vrongistinos, K., “Vibrations experienced by wheelchair users while traversing decorative crosswalks.”  World Congress of Biomechanics, 2002 Annual Conference Proceedings.

 

Szabo, T., Voss, D., and Welcher, J., "Relationships Between Impact Pulse Duration and Occupant Kinematics in Low Speed Rear Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0029, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0029.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Wobrock, J., Welcher, J., Voss, D. and Eubanks, J., "Human Occupant Kinematics in Low Speed Side Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0020, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0020.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Wobrock, J., and Eubanks, J., "Pedestrian Throw Kinematics in Forward Projection Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0019, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0019.

 

2001

 

Welcher, J., Szabo, T., and Voss, D., “Statistical Dependence of Human Occupant Accelerations on Vehicle Impact Measures in Rear-End Impacts,” IMEC2001 Proceedings (Volume I), ASME Paper no. BED-23103, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, New York, NY, November 2001.

 

Welcher, J. and Szabo, T., “Relationship Between Seat Properties and Human Subject Kinematics in Rear-Impact Tests,” Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, pp 289-304, 2001.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Wobrock, J. and Eubanks, J., “An analysis of pedestrian dummy throw characteristics for forward projection pedestrian collisions (published abstract).” International Research Council on Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI), 2001.

 

Welcher, J., Szabo, T., and Voss, D., "Human Occupant Motion in Rear-End Impacts: Effects of Incremental Increases in Velocity Change," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0899, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0899.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Wobrock, J., Stein, A., and Whiting, W., "Pedestrian Behavior at Signal-Controlled Crosswalks," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0896, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0896.

 

Carpenter, N. and Welcher, J., "Stiffness and Crush Energy Analysis for Vehicle Collision and its Relationship to Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV)," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0500, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0500.

 

Randles, B., Fugger, T., Eubanks, J., and Pasanen, E., "Investigation and Analysis of Real-Life Pedestrian Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0171, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0171.

 

Fugger, T., Wobrock, J., Randles, B., Stein, A., and Whiting, W., "Driver Characteristics at Signal-Controlled Intersections," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0045, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0045.

2000

 

Szabo, T., “Influence of Seat Properties on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Potential in Low-Speed Rear Impacts,” in Frontiers in Whiplash Trauma: Clinical Biomechanical,  Yoganandan N and Pintar F (eds), IOS Press, The Netherlands, 2000.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., and Eubanks, J., “Comparison of pedestrian accident reconstruction models to experimental test data for wrap trajectories.” IMechE Conference Transactions 2000-2, C567/031/2000, 2000.

 

Fugger, T., Randles, B., Stein, A., Whiting, W., and Gallagher, B., “Analysis of pedestrian gait and perception/reaction at signal-controlled crosswalk intersections.” Transportation Research Record 1705, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2000.

 

1999

 

Welcher, J., “Occupant Modeling for Accident Reconstruction,” Proceedings of the Accident Reconstruction: State-of-the-Art TOTPEC, sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Continuing Professional Development Group, December 9-10, 1999. 

 

Welcher, J. and Szabo, T., “Relationship Between Seat Properties and Human Subject Kinematics in Rear Impact Tests,” Proceedings of the Whiplash-Associated Disorders World Congress (Traffic Safety and Auto Engineering Stream), pp 243-274, Vancouver, BC, February 1999.  Published in the compendium of papers of the Traffic Safety and Auto Engineering Stream.  Received the award for best paper in the Traffic Safety and Auto Engineering Stream for demonstrating innovation and excellence in research activities.

1998

 

Szabo, T. and Welcher, J., “Biomechanics of Low-Speed Impacts,” presented and distributed at the International Association of Accident Reconstruction Specialists (IAARS) 1998 Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, July 13, 1998.

 

Szabo, T. and Welcher, J., “Biomechanics of Low Speed Impacts,” Proceedings of the 1998 Conference of the International Association of Accident Reconstruction Specialists (IAARS), Boston, MA, July 1998.

 

Ojalvo, I., Weber, B., Evensen, D., Szabo, T., and Welcher, J., "Low Speed Car Impacts with Different Bumper Systems: Correlation of Analytical Model with Tests," SAE Technical Paper 980365, 1998, doi:10.4271/980365.

 

Anderson, R., Welcher, J., Szabo, T., Eubanks, J. and Haight, W., "Effect of Braking on Human Occupant and Vehicle Kinematics in Low Speed Rear-End Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 980298, 1998, doi:10.4271/980298.

 

Schmidt, B., Haight, W., Szabo, T., and Welcher, J., "System-Based Energy and Momentum Analysis of Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 980026, 1998, doi:10.4271/980026.

 

1997

 

Szabo, T., “Human Subject Testing and Response to Low Level Accelerations,” Proceedings of 1997 Joint Conference of NJAAR/NAPARS/NATARI/MATAI, Atlantic City, NJ, October 1997.

 

Szabo, T., “Human Subject Testing and Response to Low Level Accelerations,” Proceedings of the CRASH97 Conference on Reconstruction and Safety on the Highway, College Station, TX, March 1997.

1996

 

Welcher, J. and Szabo T., “Introduction to Low-Speed Impacts,” introductory section to Analysis of Low-Speed Collisions, an extension course for University Engineering Extension Services, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.  Regularly updated since 1996. 

 

Szabo, T. and Welcher, J., “Human Subject Responses to Various Acceleration Fields,” Proceedings of Low Speed Collision TOPTEC (Society of Automotive Engineers), Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, August 1996.

 

Szabo, T. and Welcher, J., "Human Subject Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity During Low Speed Rear Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 962432, 1996, doi:10.4271/962432.

1994

 

Ward, C., Szabo, T., Welcher, J., “Recent Research on Rear Impact Collisions,” Proceedings of Low Speed Rear Impact Collision TOPTEC (Society of Automotive Engineers), Irvine, CA, August 1994.

 

Szabo, T., Welcher, J., Anderson, R., Rice, M., et al., "Human Occupant Kinematic Response to Low Speed Rear-End Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 940532, 1994, doi:10.4271/940532.

 

Rice, M., Welcher, J. and Ward, J., "Comparative Analysis of Riot-Control Projectile Testing," Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 46th Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, February 1994.

 

1993

 

Welcher, J. and Ward, J., "The Rodney King Case: An Analysis of the Forces Produced from Baton Strikes," Proceedings of the International Association of Forensic Sciences 13th Meeting, Düsseldorf, Germany, August 1993. 

 

Welcher, J., Ward, J. and Ward, C., "Biomechanical Analysis of Forces Produced from Baton Strikes," Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 45th Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, February 15-20, 1993.

 

1992

 

Szabo, T. and Welcher, J., "Dynamics of Low Speed Crash Tests with Energy Absorbing Bumpers," SAE Technical Paper 921573, 1992, doi:10.4271/921573.

 

Welcher, J., "Contribution of Energy-Absorbing (EA) Bumpers to Occupant Protection," Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 44th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 17-22, 1992. 

1989

 

St. Laurent, A., Szabo, T., Schewchenko, N., and Newman, J., “Design of a Motorcyclist Anthropomorphic Test Device,” Proceedings of the 12th Experimental Safety Vehicles Conference, Göteborg, Sweden, May 1989.